Nipple-sparing mastectomy (NSM) has now entered the mainstream for
both the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. It is not however,
the standard of care for either. NSM in the past was known as subcutaneous
mastectomy. In the 1970's, subcutaneous mastectomy was occasionally
performed for fibrocystic disease, breast cancer prevention and less
frequently for cancer. By the 1980's, reports of cancer occurring
in the residual breast tissue led the procedure into disfavor. It
was not until the last several years that this procedure was essentially
reborn as nipple-sparing mastectomy.
In examining the studies of subcutaneous mastectomy done in prior
decades it was apparent that there were several problems that led
to relatively poor results. Most importantly, most subcutaneous mastectomies
of the 1970's were performed with a focus on cosmetics and less concern
about removing a maximum amount of breast tissue. In many instances
breast tissue was left behind intentionally to improve cosmetic results
and to prevent necrosis (death) of the nipple.
NSM is now usually performed by a surgical oncologist, breast surgeon
or general surgeon with a focus on maximizing breast tissue removal,
while still attempting to maximize the cosmetic outcome. The term
"nipple-sparing mastectomy" now refers to a more radical
removal of breast tissue than was carried out during the subcutaneous
mastectomy era. There has never been a comparative study that compares
nipple-sparing mastectomy with standard or standard skin-sparing mastectomy.
A skin-sparing mastectomy preserves the breast skin but does not preserve
the nipple. There are large series of skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM)
that have been studied suggesting that results are likely similar
to standard mastectomy techniques. However, as in NSM, no randomized
comparative studies comparing SSM with standard mastectomy techniques
have been carried out. At this time, there are no large studies of
NSM followed for sufficient time to verify its ultimate safety. Because
there are no studies to draw upon, surrogate information must be used
to make a judgment as to its appropriate use.
Nipple-sparing mastectomy for cancer
Without comparative studies, investigators have focused on the
risk of finding occult (not diagnosable by examination or imaging
studies) cancer cells in the nipple in women undergoing mastectomy
for cancer. There have in fact been at least 13 studies which have
looked at the incidence of occult nipple involvement by carefully
examining the nipple under the microscope after its removal for
cancer. Each study has slightly different results but there is some
general agreement as to what factors lead to an increase in risk
of occult nipple involvement.
- Proximity of the cancer to the nipple: The closer the cancer
is to the nipple the more likely cancer cells will be found in
the nipple. Most investigators agree that at least 2 cm (a bit
less than an inch) should separate the cancer from the nipple.
Some investigators think that a 4cm distance is safer and utilize
this distance in their recommendations.
- Tumor size: As tumors increase in size, whether invasive or
non-invasive (DCIS), the incidence of occult nipple involvement
increases. Investigators differ on whether 3 or 4 cm should be
- Lymph node involvement: A definite risk factor but not as significant
as (1) or (2).
- Multicentricity (cancer in more than one breast quadrant): This
factor was not examined by all studies but was significant in
those where it was studied.
Nipple-sparing mastectomy for risk-reduction (prophylactic)
Women undergo risk-reduction mastectomy for a variety of reasons
- Test positive for a mutation in the BRCA 1/2 genes.
- Strong family history of breast cancer without a positive genetic
- Women undergoing mastectomy for cancer and wish to reduce their
risk in the opposite breast.
The issue in performing NSM for risk reduction centers around the
milk ducts which exist in the nipple and the understandable concern
that these ducts might serve as a source of new breast cancers.
There are little in the way of actual studies which can support
or deny that cancers actually arise in the ducts of the nipple.
However, if one looks in the scientific literature, it will be difficult
to find any studies which deal specifically with the risk of forming
cancers in the nipple. (We are not speaking here about Paget's disease,
which is cancer that has spread to the nipple from an underlying
site in the breast.) Because cancers originating in the nipple have
not been reported in the cancer literature, it seems reasonable
to conclude that cancer originating in the nipple is rare or at
the least, unusual. The low risk of nipple cancers may be at least
partially explained by examining the actual anatomic origin of breast
cancer. From very scholarly studies carried out in the 1970's, it
has been discovered that virtually all breast cancers begin not
in the large milk ducts similar to the ones found in the nipple
but in the small microscopic ducts and milk-producing areas of the
A study publish by our group in 2008 in the Annals of Surgical Oncology
examined this very question. We studied the nipple anatomy in patients
undergoing mastectomy in which the nipple was removed. Our study
found that the small ducts and lobules in which breast cancer arises
were rare in the nipple. In the very few cases in which lobules
were found, there were few in number and found only at the junction
of the nipple with the underlying breast tissue and not near the
tip of the nipple. From this study it seemed reasonable to conclude
that because the anatomic structures needed to form a breast cancer
were rare in the nipple, that cancer originating in the nipple should
also be rare.
Surgical complications related to nipple-sparing surgery are not
unusual. The ability to get oxygen to the remaining breast skin
is related to blood supply. The blood supply to the nipple and areola
is particularly tenuous following NSM. Necrosis (tissue death) of
the nipple-areola has been noted in virtually all reported series.
It appears to vary from a high near 20% to a low of 2-3%. Many factors
likely account for the differences including experience of the surgical
team, choice of incision, breast size (increase risk in larger breasts)
and on how effectively breast tissue is removed from behind the
nipple and areola. In some circumstances, necrosis can occur to
only the most superficial layers of the skin and complete healing
usually occurs within a few weeks.
Some surgeons feel the need to intentionally retain breast tissue
behind the nipple and areola while others feel that nothing short
of an attempt to remove all visible breast tissue is appropriate.
It should be noted however, that intentionally retaining breast
tissue behind the nipple could be problematic particularly in patients
carrying a BRCA 1/2 genetic mutation.
Patients electing to undergo NSM should also note that in almost
all instances, the nipple will have little to no sensation. It is
not unusual for some patients note a return of sensation to the
breast skin but few report a return of anything but the most minimal
sensation in the nipple.
Nipple-sparing mastectomy is currently being performed at high-volume
breast centers throughout the country. It would be fair to say that
it is still investigational. However, we do believe that it is a
procedure that warrants serious consideration when mastectomy is
needed to treat cancer or desired for risk reduction. In the cancer
setting, strict selection criteria should be followed at all times
(as outlined above) in order to minimize the risk of recurrent cancer
in the nipple. Cancers greater than 2cm from the nipple, less than
4cm in size can be considered. Axillary node status and multicentricity
should be considered on a case-by-case basis.
In the risk reduction setting, it is our feeling that there is minimal
risk to retaining the nipple as long as great care is taken to remove
all visible breast tissue from beneath the nipple. Coring of the
nipple (removing tissue from within the nipple itself) should be
considered in appropriate cases.
Alan Stolier, M.D.